Scuba Dive - Full Pack Scuba Diving Bali | Best Dive Center Bali

By this point you realize you need equipment to Bali scuba dive. You may be well on your way to owning a complete set. So. you’re probably already familiar with basic types of  Bali scuba dive equipment. But you may not be as familiar with some of the specific features or options that apply to each type, or what separates equipment aimed primarily at snorkeling from equipment intended for Bali scuba diving. Also, you may not yet be aware of some equipment you’ll use. 

This subsection looks at equipment basics for masks, snorkels, fins, BCDs, scuba tanks, regulators and submersible pressure gauges, each of which you’ll use during your confined water dives.While you’ll learn the basics here, keep in mind that Bali scuba dive gear comes in myriad styles and col-ors that makes it comfortable and stylish as well as functional. What types work best for you will depend on your preferences, the type of Bali scuba diving activities that interest you, where you’ll be Bali scuba diving and other variables. Your PADI Bali scuba Dive Center, Resort or Instructor can show you the different types and models that best suit your needs.

Patrpose, It’s not earth-shattering news that you need a mask to see underwater. Why you need it is that light behaves differently in water than in air, and your eyes focus accord ing to how light behaves in air. That’s why water makes everything blurry. The mask creates an air space so your eyes can focus.

When buying a mask, don’t skimp. Get a good one specifically designed for Bali scuba diving that fits you properly. If you think about it, in warm As you learned, the mask creates an air space you must equalize during descent to prevent mask squeeze. That’s why the mask must enclose your nose. Goggles, which cover only the eyes without enclosing your nose can’t be equalized. They’re fine for surface swimming, but they’re not acceptable for BAli scuba diving.

 

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When buying a mask, don’t skimp. Get a good one specifically designed for Bali scuba diving that fits you properly. If you think about it, in warm water you can have a lot of fun with only a mask, but if you had every piece of Bali scuba dive gear but a mask, there’d be no reason to get in the water. So your mask is important.for Bali scuba diving have these features: Tempered-glass lens plate.

If broken, tem-pered glass is less likely to shatterinto fine, hazardous slivers. Comfortable skirt with a close fit against your face and a good seal. Nose or finger pockets. To make equalizing your ears easier, a mask should have some way of letting you conveniently pinch or block your nose.
 

Styles range from simple round or oval shaped models to more modern styles with lower internal volumes and wider fields of vision. Wraparound masks feature two panels along the sides to improve peripheral vision. The vast majority of masks you’ll choose from are lower-profile masks, which have a notched face plate and a nose pocket to allow your nose to protrude past the lens. This gets the lens closer to your face, for a wider vision field, plus makes it easy to pinch your nose for equalizing. Many wrap-around type masks incorporate low-profile design.

 

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Material.mask for Bali scuba diving are most often made from silicone rubber. Silicone rubber is usually translu-cent, though manufacturers sometimes add coloring agents to make it black, or a translucent color, which is primarily to make the mask look better. Why not be styl-ish and functional? softer and more comfortable, usually looks better, and doesn’t usually irritate sensitive skin. You may see neo-prene masks in use, but they tend to be the exception rather than the rule.

Selection and Purchase

When buying for scuba diving, your two most important selection factors are fit and comfort. This is particularly true for your mask, because a mask that doesn’t fit well will leak and/or irri-tate you and take the fun out of the Bali scuba dive. (Note: You needn’t suffer for style. Bali scuba Dive equipment comes in enough variety that you can accommodate fit and comfort first, yet still look good. (You can buy almost everything in basic black, too.)

To test a mask for a proper fit, use the “sniff” test. Place it gently against your face without using the strap and inhale through your nose. A properly fitting mask will pull into place by suction and stay as you inhale. If vou have to push or twist the mask to make it seal, try a different one. After finding some that fit, try pinching your nose with each on to see which is easiest.
 


If you need visual correction, some masks accept prescription lenses. You’ll want to think about this when buying a mask, because not all masks do this readily. Atlantis Bali scuba Dive Center, Resort and Instructor can help you pick out a mask that’s right for you. If you need visual correction, some masks accept prescription lenses. You’ll want to think about this when buying a mask, because not all masks do this readily. Atlantis PADI Bali scuba Dive Center, Resort and Instructor can help you pick out a mask that’s right for you. Manufacturers coat new masks with a protective chemical that you need to scrub off or you won’t be able to defog the mask. To remove the film, use a soft cloth to gently scour the glass inside and out with a non-gel toothpaste or other low abrasion cleaner with fine grit that can remove the film without scratching the glass. Be sure to do this before your confined water on a Bali scuba dive.

 

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Next, adjust the mask strap for a comfortable fit across the crown of your head. The strap should be snug, but not tight, and make sure to close the locking device (they differ a bit from one mask to another) so it doesn’t slip.Three general maintenance pro-cedures apply to caring for all Bali scuba dive equipment, including masks: 

  • Rinse thoroughly with fresh water after each use (even in a swimming pool)
  •  
  • keep out of’ direct sunlight
  •  
  • store in a cool, dry place

The freshwater rinse removes salt, chlorine and/or minerals that contribute to corrosion and deteriora-tion. Rinse thoroughly as soon as possible after a Bali scuba diving if you can’t rinse your gear right away, it’s gen-erally better to keep it wet than to let salt water dry on it because it’s much harder to remove salt after it dries.Sunlight damages silicone (and especially neo-prene), so avoid leaving your equipment in direct sunlight.
 


If it has to stay out in direct sunlight at a Bali scuba dive site or on a boat, you can throw a beach towel over it. Dry your equipment thoroughly before storing it in a cool, dry place away from hydrocarbons and ozone.Keep masks and other Bali scuba dive equipment made from silicone out of contact with neoprene. The neoprene leaches into the silicone and discolors it, which doesn’t harm it functionally, but makes it look less attractive.

Fins provide a powerful leg muscles can move you through the water. This is much more effective than swimming with your scuba divers with limited leg use who use their arms with special hand fins. All fins, regardless of style or features have pockets for your feet and blades for propulsion.Modern fins come in two basic styles: adjustable strap and full-foot. Adjustable fins have open heel foot pockets and adjustable heel straps, whereas full-foot fins enclose the heel and fit like rubber slippers.

Most scuba divers wear adjustable fins because you can wear wet suit boots with them. Also, most high-power fins appropriate for Bali scuba diving are adjustable strap types, though there are exceptions. Warm water snorkelers and scuba divers often prefer full-foot fins because they don’t need wet suit boots.
 


Most modern fins 
use a composite construction, with foot pockets and heel straps made from neoprene rubber (or a similar mater-ial), and the blade made from an appropriate plastic. However, non composite, all-neoprene fins remain popular. Fins have several features to choose from, especially blade design features. 

Blade features include ribs, which add rigidity to the blade and act as vertical stabilizers vents, which reduce resistance to fin movement and increase efficiency and channels, which increase efficiency by guiding water smoothly over the fin. (You can have long, passionate debates with fellow scuba divers over which of these offers the best performance, but while this gives you something to do when you can’t go Bali scuba diving, the reality is that all the top fins offer comparable performance when you wear-the best fin for you.)

 

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Materials Most modern fins use a composite construction, with foot pockets and heel straps made from neoprene rubber (or a similar mater-ial), and the blade made from an appropriate plastic. However, non composite, all-neoprene fins remain popular even as neoprene fades from use in other dive equip-ment. Neoprene fins last a long time and have per-formance characteristics many divers prefer. Divers who prefer composite fins like the fact they’re lighter in weight, may have greater propulsion efficiency and you can buy them in a variety of colors to match your mask and snorkel. Composite fins may affect your buoyancy compared to all neoprene fins because they’re lighter.

You buv vour fins based on your size, your physical ability and where you plan to dive. If you’re looking at adjustable heel fins, you’ll want to have your wet suit boots for a proper fit. With the boots on, put your foot in the pocket. The pocket should come to the point where your ankle meets your foot – if it won’t come up that high, you need a larger size. Full foot fins should fit comfort-ably without binding, yet not feel loose. It helps to wet your bare feet when trying on full foot fins. 
 


For a given fin size, the larger and stiffer the blade, the more strength you need to use it.In looking at fins that accommodate your size, physical ability and where you intend to use them, your primary concerns are (you guessed it) fit and com-fort. If you’re not sure what model to select, have your PADI Instructor, Dive Center or Resort help you.

Preparation 1 Full-foot fins generally require no preparation, but you need to adjust adjustable-strap fins for a snug, comfortable fit. Do this with your wet-suit boots on. ofcourse. You may find new fin straps coated with a slick preservative. Wipe this off, otherwise your straps will tend to slip out of adjustment.

MAintenance As with your inask and snorkel, rinse your fins in fresh water after use, store them in a cool, dry place and keep them out of direct sunlight. Inspect fin straps regularly – they tend to wear out faster than straps on other dive gear.

It feels strange the first time. The mask. The awkward gear, a bit heavy. You ease into the water and your face slips below the surface. Inhale; the air comes with a reassuring hiss, and for the first time, you breathe underwater. In moments, you forget the mask. The equipment transforms to light and agile, and you’re free like you’ve never experienced before. With that first underwater breath, the door opens to a different world. Not a world apart, but different nonetheless

Go through that door. Your life will never be the same. No one but you can say what calls you to Bali scuba diving. If you seek adventure, you’ll find plenty, whether it’s in a sunken ship as you uncover its secrets, in a far corner of the world amid other peoples and cultures, or in your backyard – closer than you imagined possible.
 


If you love nature, you’ve come to the right place. No other environment approaches the abundance. Scuba diversity and vibrance of a pristine coral reef. You can see more different species in ten minutes there than in ten hours in the most unspoiled wildernesses above water. But with time, you’ll discover that even unlikely places that seem empty and sterile to the inexperienced eye – like a lake or flooded quarry – teem with intriguing organisms – a reminder that nature imagination exceeds ours.

 

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If discovery drive you. welcome to inner space. It.some what cliche, yet true, that we know- the surface of the moon better than we know the bottoms of the oceans. Even at the most popular  Bali scuba dive sites, you’ll see things most people never see and go where most people never go. Even with hundreds of’ Bali scuba dives under your belt, visiting a new Bali scuba dive site thrills you with discovery, and visit-ing a familiar site is a-bit like coming home.

And Bali scuba diving means rising to new challenges. It’s one of those rare activities that delivers adrenaline and intensity, or serenity and peace. You can take on challenges that require training, planning and focus searching for and recovering lost objects, descending to 30 metres/100 feet (if your diving level permits) or exploring your favorite Bali scuba dive site after sunset. 

Or you can drift along in some of the world’s most tranquil and beautiful settings, with your biggest immediate worry whether you want to stop and photograph that starfish or not. Either way, Bali scuba diving grows with you – there’s always something new to see, somewhere new to explore, some new way to yjuv the experience. No other endeav-our so easily matches exactly what you’reup for, right now. tomorrow and ten years from now. You cannot outgrow it.

Youve probaly seen photos, television and films about Bali scuba diving but until you do it yourself. vou can’t really understand what it’s like. Nothing on earth matches the sensations you experience – the thrill of’ breathing underwater. the freedom of “weightless-ness,” and unique and sounds.

The PADI Open Water scuba Diver course leads to two possible certifications: PADI Scuba Diver and PADI Open Water scuba Diver.
Open Water scuba Diver certification is a full entry level certification you earn by success-fully completing the entire Open Water scuba Diver course. The PADI Open Water scuba Diver certification qualifies you to: Bali scuba Dive independently while applying the knowledge and skills you learn in this course, within the limits of your train-ing and experience.

Procure air fills, scuba equipment and other servicesPlan, conduct and log open water no stop (no decompression) Bali scuba dives when equipped properly and accompanied by a buddy in conditions with which you have training and/or experience.Continue your scuba diver training with a spe-cialty Bali scuba dive in the PADI Adventures in Bali scuba Diving program, and/or in PADI Specialty courses.
 


You earn the PADI Scuba Diver certifica-tion by completing only a portion of the Open Water scuba Diver course. The Scuba Diver certification is a pre-entry level certification and qualifies you to: Bali scuba Dive under the inwater supervision of a PADI Bali scuba Divemaster (or someone with a higher level professional rating) while applying the knowledge and skills you learn in this course, within the limits of your training and experience.

Procure air fills, scuba equipment and other services for use while Bali scuba diving supervised.Plan under supervision, conduct and log open water no stop (no decompression) Bali scuba dives when equipped properly and accompanied in water by a certified Bali scuba divemaster, assistant instructor or instructor in conditions with which you have training and/or experience.Continue your scuba diver training to complete the PADI Open Water scuba Diver certification and some select spe-cialty courses.

 

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The PADI Open Water scuba Diver course opens this world for you. During thils course, you’ll learn what you need to know to explore the underwater world, whether simply snorkeling in the shallows with mask, fins and snorkel, or visiting longer and deeper using scuba a word derived from self con-tained underwater breathing apparatus). Most people find learning to Bali scuba dive a fun challenge that’s neither effortless nor overly arduous.

Welcome to a world of discovery and adventure. This course is only the beginning.To become a scuba diver, you need to be comfortable in water and have basic swimming skills, so your instructor will have you do some swimming and floating – nothing extreme (200 metres/yards and a ten minute float, or a 300 metre/yard mask, fin and snorkel swim and float), just enough.

As the world’s largest scuba diver training organization, PADI enjoys the most scuba diverse professional membership in the entire Bali scuba dive community. This is the world’s most culturally and ethnically scuba diverse group of recreational Bali scuba dive professionals. At this writing, more than 100,000 PADI Instructors, Assistant Instructors and Bali scuba Divemasters teach Bali scuba diving and offer Bali scuba dive services in more than 180 countries and territories. You can find PADI scuba diver materials in more than 20 languages. Today, virtually anyone who wants to learn to Bali scuba dive can find a PADI Instructor nearby who speaks the same language and who comes from the same culture.

What does this mean for you? It means wherever your Bali scuba dive travels take you, you can be confident that the local Bali scuba dive community will recognize your scuba diver credentials – even if “PADI” is the only word you can speak in the local language.

 

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Determine you have basic swimming abilities. You don’t need to be an athlete, but you should be in good overall health, particularly your respiratory and circulatory systems. Mentally, you need a mature attitude good judgment and the self-discipline to follow the uidelines and principles required for safe Bali scuba diving.

Before any confined water Bali scuba dives or water skills, your instructor will have you complete a medical statement. The information you put on it will remain confisial. Because the statement identifies medical conditions that may be affected by Bali scuba diving, for your safety 1 health it’s important that you complete it compltely and accurately If any of the conditions listed apply to you, as a prudent precaution, your instructor ask you to consult a physician before participation any water activities. Also, in some areas local ulations or laws require that all prospective scuba receive medical clearance prior to Bali scuba diving.

The minimum ages for scuba certification are 10 for the Junior Open Water scuba Diver or Junior Scuba Diver cetification (adult supervised diving), and 15 for the Men Water scuba Diver or Scuba Diver certification. These certifications show that you successfully completedcourse according to the training standards and quirements established by PADI. Bali scuba Dive centers and orts require a person to be a certified scuba diver or in aining before they will rent or sell you scuba equipment fill scuba tanks for you, or let you participate in -Bali scuba diving activities.

 

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PADI is the Professional Association of Bali scuba Diving instructors, the world’s largest scuba diver training organititaon. PADI establishes training programs, materials ad standards, monitors their quality, certifies instructors, and provides support services for PADI frofessional members. 

The professionalism of PADI instructors, Bali scuba Dive Centers and Resorts has made certifications the world’s most respected and saught-after Bali scuba dive credentials. You can be confident that your certification will le recognized virtually any place you go Bali scuba diving, and that PADhs reputation stands behind it.

The PADI Open Water scuba Diver course consists of three segments: Confined water Bali scuba dive knowledge develop-ment, and open water Bali scuba dive.Each plays an important role in learning to Bali scuba dive and in meeting the perfor-mance objectives vou nced to qualify as a scuba diver.The fun begins in the confined water Bali scuba dives, during which you apply Bali scuba dive principles, and learn and prac-tice Bali scuba dive procedure` and skills. You’ll do this in either a swimming pool.

or a body of water with pool-like conditions, under vour instructor’s guidance and supervision. There are five confined water Bali scuba dives that correspond with five knowledge development sections (three of each for Scuba Diver). 

 

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Knowledge development establishes the principles and basic information all scuba divers need to have fun Bali scuba diving safely. It’s divided into five segments that you’ll complete primarily on your own time at your convenience using this manual and the PADI Open Water Diuer Video. (In some instances you may view or review the video in a classroom setting.)

For each seg-ment, your instructor reviews and elaborates on the material, applying what you’re learning to your specific needs, interests and the local Bali scuba dive environment. A short quiz confirms that you’ve picked up the information you need from that section

The open water Bali scuba dives complete your training as an entry level scuba diver by applying and further developing your knowledge and Bali scuba dive skills in a Bali scuba dive environment under your instructor’s supervision and guidance. You’ll make at least four Bali scuba dives, and perhaps an optional skin Bali scuba dive, during this part of the Open Water scuba Diver course. Prior, to certification, you’ll meet specific learning ob,jectives that you’ll read about in this man-ual, and that Your instructor will discuss with You’ll be learning in a sequence that establishes skills and knowledge from the simple to the complex, with later skills and knowledge building on what you learn first.

For this reason, it’s important to successfully complete each section before moving on to the next. For example. You need to successfully complete Knowledge Development Section Two before you complete Knowledge Development Section Three, and you must successfully complete Confined Water Bali scuba Dive 2 before you begin Confined Water Bali scuba Dive 3.

 

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Nonetheless, your instructor has tremendous flexibility to accommodate differing schedules and still meet course requirements. Your instructor will review the schedule and read-ing requirements for your course.

All PADI courses apply the concept of perfor-mance based learning, which means that you progress based on meeting specific perfor-mance requirements under your instructor’s guidance. If you have difficulty, you don’t “fail” – you just keep working until you meet them – but likewise, you won’t get certified just because you show up.

Your PADI Instructor is a trained professional commit-ted to helping you attain your goal of becom-ing a scuba diver by guiding you in meeting the course performance requirements

Your regulator makes it possible to use the air in your tank. It reduces the scuba tank’s higY; pressure air to match the surrounding water pressure, and it delivers air only on demand, when you inhale. It regulates the air flow, hence the name “regulator.” ‘I”echnieallv. it’s a highly sophisti-cated demand valve, so in some areas divers prefer “demand valve” to “regulator.”

Styles and Features. The moderi scuba regulator is a simple and reliable device with only a few moving parts. It has two stages: a first stage, which vou attach to the scuba tank valve and a second stage that has a mouthpiece. The stages reduce high-pressure air from the cuba rank frequentially.

The first stage reduces the high tank presure to an intermediate pres-sure of 7-10 bar/100 to 150 psi above the surrounding water pressure. The second stage recdct-s this intermediate pres-sure to the water pressure surrounding you, which is what you need for comfortable breathing. Easy breathing is the most important feature of a regulator.
 


Regardless of make, all modern regulators share a relatively similar basic structure. Fermiliarization with regulator termi-nology and how it functions will help you understand further explanations regarding regulators.Look at the regulator second stage diagram. The second stage is haically a cup or air space covered with a flexible diaphragm (usually silicone rubber), a lever-operated inlet valve, a mouthpiece and an exhaust valve. When you inhale, you pull the diaphragm imvard, which pushes the inlet valve lever to air. When you stop inhaling, air pressure inside the second stage rises, and the diaphragm return,, to it relaxed position, releasing the lever and allowing the valve to close. The purge button lets you manually control the floA° of air by depressing the uiaphrasm and valv lever.

When you exhale. the exhaust valve opens and the air vents out through the one-way exhaust valve. The exhaust valve remains closed when \ once not exhaling, keeping water out of the regulator.

 

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The alternate air source simplifies sharing air with another scuba diver, should the need arise. The alternate air source usually has a longer hose and a bright color so you can find it easily. You’ll pick up more detail on alternate air sources in Section Two of this manual, and you’ll get practice using one during your first confined water Bali scuba dive.

Besides these, your regulator will have a hose with a coupling device at the free end. This hose connects to the low-pressure inflator on your BCD. If you’re using a dry suit, you’ll have two of these; the longer one generally goes to your dry suit.Although there are several manufac-turers of popular regulators, virtually all regula-tors are made from the same basic materials. 

The first stage is generally made from chrome-plated brass, though there are a few high end models made from titanium. The second stage may be made from brass, high-impact plastics or a combination of both. Parts like mouthpieces and exhaust tees are generally made from plastic neoprene and silicone rubber.

As mentioned, you want to choose a regulator based on ease of breathing. With your PADI Bali scuba Dive Center’s help,you can choose an easy-breathing regulator by comparing flow rates and breathing resistance. Virtually all modern regulators perform well within recreational Bali scuba diving limits, so you’ll be choosing based on the feel you prefer, taking into consideration things like service availability and so on. Of course, you can usually purchase a suitable regulator that matches the style of your mask, fins, snorkel, BCD and tank

 

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When buying your regulator, you’ll want to get your alternate air source at the same time. Again, have your PADI Resort, Instructor oro Bali scuba Dive Center assist with your selection.Aside from assembling of your scuba unit your regulator requires no special preparation other than the attachment of You may prefer to rinse your regulator while attached to your tank with the valve open.

By doing this, there’s no way water will accidentally enter the valve and first stage. During rins-ing, flush fresh water through any holes in the first stage (except the high-pressure inlet covered by the dust cap, of course) and through the second stage mouthpiece. Keep the first stage higher than the second to minimize the possibility that water will flow up the hose to it. It’s a good precaution to After each use, rinse your regulator with the rest of your equipment, but it’s often best to soak it, then rinse it with running water. When soaking and rins ing your regulator, keep these points in mind:Put the first stage dust cover firmly in place to keep water out ofthe first stage.

Do not use high-pressure water to rinse your regulator – only gently flowing water.Don’t press the purge button while rinsing or soaking, because this opens the second stage inlet valve and can allow water to flow up the hose into the first stage.purge the regulator briefly to blow out any water that may have entered the first stage accidentally.

Keep your regulator free of sand, mud and debris. To prevent damage to the hoses when storing or packing your regulator, allow the hoses to form large, gentle curves rather than tight loops. Don’t use hoses to pull or handle your scuba unit (they’re strong, but they’re not that strong). It’s better to store your regulator lying flat than to hang it by one of the stages or hoses.

Your regulator requires periodic lubrication and adjustment, not to mention inspection, to assure that it operates reliably. So, an important part of regulator maintenance includes professional servicing at least once a year, or sooner if it begins to breathe hard or leak air, or according to manufacturer specifications. With proper maintenance and with annual servicing, your regulator should provide many years of depend-able service.

Tanks and valves work together, so we’ll look at them together.Even a scuba nondiver knows that a scuba tank is a cylindrical metal container used to safely store high-pressure air so you have something to breathe underwater. Almost as obvious is the purpose of the tank valve, which is to control air flow from the tank. Sounds simple, but what you may not realize is that there are different types of tanks and valves to handle these two simple jobs.

Tanks style and features Tanks come in a varietv of air capacities, depending upon their pressure rating and size. In the metric system, you express tank capacity in litres or kilograms of water capacity. The most common sizes are 8, 10, 12 and 15 litres. In the imperial system, you express capacity in the number of cubic feet of air you would have if you released it all at the surface. The three most common tank sizes are 50, 71.2 and 80 cubic feet, although other sizes are available.
 


 

The standard 12 litre/ 71.2 or 80-cubic-foot tank contains about the same air you have in a walk-in closet, compressed into a space about 600 mm/two feet long and 150 mm/half a foot in diameter. 

As this air is compressed into the tank, its pressure increases. The pressure in scuba tanks may be higher than 320 bar/4500 pounds per square inch (psi), but typical pressure ratings range from about 170 to 200 bar, or 2250 and 3000 psi.

Scuba tanks are either made of aluminum or steel. Both types are subject to regulations usually established by govern-ment agencies such as the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Canadian Transport Commission (CTC) and similar agencies in other countries. Among these regulations, scuba tanks must pass periodic pressure tests (discussed below) mandated by these agencies.

You’ll find learning to Bali scuba dive fun and exciting, but it is a learning experience and you are taking a course. This means a bit of indepen-dent study and preparation with this manual, the PADI Open Water scuba Diver Video or the CD-ROM. 

It’s very necessary that you prepare adequately for each session with your instructor; failure to do so makes it difficult or impossible to progress, usually requiring some rescheduling until you can complete the needed learning. What you need to accom-plish isn’t especially complex or excessively long – and hopefully you’ll get a smile or chuckle along the way. But it is important: as ou’ll see, in Bali scuba diving what you don’t know can hurt vou. hut don’t worry when you’re properlyinfomned and follow what you’ve learned, vou can avoid or minimize the risks of Bali scuba diVing.
 


The emphasis in the Open Water scuba Diver course is to learn to Bali scuba dive by Bali scuba diving. Yourinstructor will get you in the water Bali scuba diving as quickly as possible because that’s what Bali scuba diving’s all about. Nonetheless, Bali scuba diving involves learning some basic principles and guide-lines. You’ll normally cover these through independent learning and reviews with you instructor.

Depending on your course schedule, you may complete your independent learning by completing a section. meeting with your instruc-tor f’ur a review and a confined water Bali scuba dive,and then going on to the next one.

 

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Alternativelv. You may complete independent learnina for all sections prior to your first meetin with your instructor. Either way, use the following steps to prepare:Begin by skimming the headings in section One of this manual. This quick scan learning by giving you a basic idea of what a vou’ll be studying. You’ll also notice that manual isn’t simply a text, but an interactive tool that guides and confirms your rning with objectives, quick quizzes and knowledge reviews. More about these shortly.Next, read Section One and watch thecorresponding first section of the PADI Open water scuba Diver Video. It really doesn’t matter lich you do first, so take your choice. People differ in how they learn, so whichever way you like best is probably best for you.

At the beginning of each subsection in section One, notice the study objectives, each stated as a question. To succeed in this course, you need to be able to answer all of nese questions. So as you read, guide your learning by looking for the answers. When you find the answers, highlight or underlinethem.It’s important that you actually high light/underline in the manual to do this not just mentally note it – because the iction of stopping and writing reinforces our learning.

Following each subsection you’ll find a Quick Quiz, which checks and reinforces what you’ve read. Again (important!) actually writing in the book. answer each question, then check the answers supplied at the bottom of the quiz. If you missed any and don’t understand why, flip back to that section and review it until you do.At the end of Section One, you’ll find a Knowledge Review. Fill it out to turn in to-our instructor when you meet for that sec tion’s review and elaboration session

If there’s a question you can’t answer, review that por-tion of Section One until you can. If there’s -something you don’t understand even after rereading, you may understand it better after watching the video (if you haven’t already) or by reviewing the video (if you have). If you still don’t get it. ask your instructor to explain the material until you’re both satisified that you do

 

Diving Succeed Course 3

You’ll find the confined water dives a lot of fun. A few tips will help you get the most out of your practice:Think of confined water dives as simulations of open water dives use them to develop good open water habits. For instance, am ocean or quarry won’t have sides you can hang onto, so don’t hang onto the pool sides. A dive boat rocks and an unattended scuba tank will fall over. so get in the habit of laying your tank down when preparing for your confined water dives. Your instructor will ask you to develop habits for quite a few things that aren’t necessary for con-fined water diwe,. but are for open water dives.

Your instructor will demonstrate skills you need to learn before you practice them. During demonstration, pay attention to the details especially those that your instructor exaggerates emphasizes. The faster you pick these up, the faster you’ll master the skill.

If you don’t understand why you’re practicing doing something, be sure to ask your instructor There are no arbitrary skills in the PADI Open Water Diver course – everything you earn has a real, practical purpose. So it’s .portant that you understand when and why you would use a skill you’re learning.

 

Diving Succeed Course 4

During the open water dives you learn by applying the knowledge and skills you pick up during your independent learning and in the confined ater dives, plus you’ll develop some new abili ties that you can’t practically learn in confined ater. You’ll also have time to explore and get to know the underwater world with your instructor guiding you.

Your instructor will probably make recom-nendations about preparing for your open water lives, such as what to wear, whether you need sunscreen, etc. Ask the PADI professionals at your local dive centers and resorts for assistance when purchasing equipment. Pay attention to these details – your instructor knows your local dive environment well and is trying to nelp you avoid problems and have an enjoyable experience.

If you’re prone to seasickness and will be div-ng from a boat, consult your physician as neces-sary regarding an appropriate seasick-ness medication. Seasickness can ruin an otherwise fabulous outing – but for most people it is easy to prevent. You don’t have to let seasickness come between you and enjoying your first underwater adventure.

You don’t have to be an athlete to dive, but it is a physical activity. You’ll have a lot more fun if you’ve rested and eaten adequately before your open water dives.

During your confined water dives, you’ll start practicing the buddy system – always diving with a buddy who stays nearby at all times. Your buddy assists you with things like putting on and checking your equipment before the dive, helps remind you to check your depth, time and air supply limits, and provides emergency assistance in the unlikely event you need it.Hopefully it goes without saying that you do the same for your buddy. With a proper buddy system, you both benefit in terms of convenience, safety and fun.

Diving is a social activity, so the buddy system is more than one of diving’s safety rules – though it is that. Diving with someone adds to the fun. Together, you and your buddy share experiences and underwater adventures, sometimes seeing things that no one else ever will. You may be surprised how many new friends you meet through diving and the buddy system. 
 


Three general reasons apply to diving with a buddy: 1) practicality, 2) safety and 3) fun.You and your buddy have a responsibility to each other. For the buddy sys-tem to work, you and your buddy must take it seriously (but still have fun) and work at staying together underwater. So, develop the habit and start practicing the buddy system during your con-fined water dives.

 

Diving The Buddy System 2

Okay, now you’re about ready to go diving in the pool or confined water. If you’ve never done it before, you’ll find it exhilarating breathing underwater for the first time. You’ll never forget it.During your first confined water dive, your instructor and the instructor’s assistants will help you set up your gear, put it on and take you through the steps of going underwater with scuba for the first time. Then, you’ll start learning and practicing some of the skills you’ll need as a diver.

Your instructor will be at hand the whole time, guiding you and making sure you have fun learning to dive. If you have a question or want some assistance, ask. The PADI Open Water Diver course enables you to meet physical and academic performance requirements through a variety of adaptive techniques. And as it said in the introduction, if you don’t understand why you’re doing something, find out. After all, it doesn’t matter if you can do something perfectly if you don’t know when and why you would do it

Your instructor will go over each of the following scuba skills, and may present them in a slightly different order or manner to accommodate logistics, your individual needs, local conditions and so on. But this will give you an idea of what you’re going to be doing.

Valve Types Virtually all scuba tank valves are made from chrome-plated brass. Historically, divers identified tank valves as two basic types: the K-valve, which is a sim-ple on/off vaive, and the J-valve, which has a built-in mechanism that signals when you run low on air.The J-valve contains a spring-operated shutoff valve that is held open by tank pressure until the pressure drops to approximately 20-40 bar/300-500 psi. When the tank pressure drops below that point, the pressure no longer holds the shutoff open, causing breathing resistance to increase and warning that air is low. Pulling down the reserve lever releases the remaining “reserve” air.

Although valves were almost standard equipment in the 1960s before common use of submersible pressure gauges, today you see them much less frequently, and usually left in the nonreserve position. An exception is in areas where regulations require them. They’re prone to accidental tripping (so they don’t warn you), and they increase the cost and service requirements of the valve. The only reliable way to monitor your tank pressure is to use a submersible pressure gauge (SPG), which you’ll practice using during your confined water dives.
 


Today, you can identify tank valves as yoke valves or DIN (Deutschees Institut fuer Normung) valves. By far the most common are yoke valves; as the name implies you attach the • regulator via a yoke assembly. With the DIN valve system, you screw the regulator into the valve. Although less common worldwide, the DIN valve system has the advantage of being rated to higher working pressures.

The DIN system is very common in central Europe.One thing to notice is that all tank valve connections with the regulator require an O-ring, which makes an air tight real. You find the O ring mounted in the valve with the yoke system, and mounted in the regulator with the DIN system. Either way, you can’t dive without this O-ring – the regulator won’t seal – so learn to check for it when seting up your gear.

 

Diving Valve Types 2

Selection and Purchase Selecting a tank and valve depends, among other factors, on your size, the type of diving you will be where you’ll use the tank. Consult your PADI Dive Center, Resort or Instructor for help when purchasing a tank for your area.for Use, Aside from assembling it with the rest of your scuba gear, the only preparation required for a tank is having it filled at a reputable fill station, such as a dive center. You’ll read about setting up your gear in the Confined Water Preview. Your tank will come with the valve installed, so you don’t have any preparation requirements there.Your tank valve should operate easily and smoothly.

If there is any difficulty in operation, don’t try to lubricate it. Have a professional dive operation service it. Closing a valve too tightly can damage its high-pressure seal. When setting up your equipment, open the valve slowly, all the way until it stops turning.(Note: It used to be common to open the valve all the way, and then close it a quarter to half a turn. This isn’t necessary with modern valves, though it doesn’t hurt anything if someone does it.) When you’re taking it apart,44 Open Water Diver Manual Out of water, scuba tanks are heavy, unstable when left standing a. 1 tend to roll when lying down. The cylindrical shape has a purpose – it’s structurally very strong and one of the best shapes for containing pressure.

To avoid damaging your tanks, or having your tanks damage something else or even hurt someone, always block or secure them so they can’t roll. Don’t leave them standing unattended, because fresh water and storing it out of the sun, you have some extra considerations for care.Besides rinsing your tank and valve with they fall over easily, which can damage your BCD or regula-tor if you’ve set up your unit. If you need to leave tanks standing up – which is common to save deck space on a boat – you need to secure them so they can’t fall. Dive boats commonly have special racks for this. When carrying your tanks in your car, lay them down horizontally and block or tie them.

 

Diving Valve Types 3

Your tank valve should operate easily and smoothly. If there is any difficulty in operation, don’t try to lubricate it. Have a professional Bali scuba dive operation service it. Closing a valve too tightly can damage its high-pressure seal. When setting up your equipment, open the valve slowly, all the way until it stops turning.(Note: It used to be common to open the valve all the way, and then close it a quarter to half a turn. This isn’t necessary with modern valves, though it doesn’t hurt anything if someone does it.) When you’re taking it apart,close it all the way gently. Always close valves gently and avoid over-tightening.

In recreational Bali scuba diving, scuba tanks should only be filled with compressed air for breathing never pure oxygen. During filling, your Bali scuba dive operation will usually cool your cylinder in water (it heats as the pressure rises). Tanks should only b. filled to the rated pressure, since overfilling can lead to metal fatigue and shorten the life of the tank.Your Bali scuba dive operation fills your tank with totally dry air because moisture inside can cause rust or corrosion on its inner surface. It is also important to keep water out of your tank. The best way to do this is to never allow it to completely empty. If you do empty the tank completely, close the valve immediately to keep moisture out. Water can even enter an empty tank by backing up through a regulator, so having the regulator attached doesn’t guarantee a dry interior. 

Also, bleeding the air from your tank quickly can cause internal condensation and corrosion.In recreational Bali scuba diving, scuba tanks should only be filled with compressed air for breathing – never pure oxygen. During filling, your Bali scuba dive operation will usually cool your cylinder in water (it heats as the pressure rises). Tanks should only b. filled to the rated pressure, since overfilling can lead to metal fatigue and shorten the life of the tank.

 

Diving Valve Types 4

Your tank may have a rubber or plastic boot, which allows the tank to stand (where appropriate) and creates some protection if it bumps into things. Check underneath the boot periodically for corrosion. To check for internal rust and corrosion, you need to have a professional visually inspect the inside at least once a year. To do this, the inspector drains the tank slowly and removes the valve. Using a special inspection light, the inspector checks for corrosion, cracks, debris and other possible damage. (This service must only be performed by a trained professional at a qualified service center – do not empty the tank yourself.) 

Once the tank passes the visual inspection, the inspector usually puts a sticker with the test date on the cylinder (they’re not used in all areas). Professional Bali scuba dive facilities will not fill a tank without a current visual inspection sticker.Because tanks are also subject to metal fatigue, they must receive periodic pressure tests called hydrostatic tests. The test subjects the cylinder to very high pressure You also need to store your tanks properly. Keep them in a cool place, especially when full, because the pressure of compressed air rises when exposed to heat. 

Full scuba tanks left in a hot environment, for example, can rupture the valves’ burst discs. Store tanks with between 10-20 bar/100-300 psi of air to keep moisture out. If you store a tank without using it longer than six months, have thecial testing tank, and evaluates how much it expands and contracts, which reveals metal fatigue or stress.When a tank passes the hydro-static test, signifying that it can safely hold air at its rated pressure, the tester stamps the test date onto it.

Professional Bali scuba dive facilities will not fill a tank lacking a current hydrostatic test date. Your instructor will tell you what local or national standards relate to your cylinder hydro-static testing. Standards vary from country to country for example in the United States and Canada, you need to have your tank hydrostatically tested every five years. In central Europe, steel tanks require hydrostatic testing every two years, and aluminum require it every five years.

Whether a simple gauge or part of* a computer, your SPCx is a precision instrument that requires careful handling. Do not drop or bang it, and be careful to avoid lying a tank or other heavy object on top of it. While Bali scuba diving, don’t let it drag or dangle, which not only damages the SPG, but can damage fragile aquatic life.

Because the SPG (or transmitter) remains attached to your regulator, simply rinsing and soaking it along with the regulator takes care of its maintenance. When you take your regulator in for annual servicing, be sure to have your Bali scuba dive professional take care of your SPG as part ofthe servicing.
 


It’s a good idea to mark your equipment for easy identification using special Bali scuba diving equipment markers. These may be marking paint, crayons orcolored tape. among others. 

After you’ve investedin matching mask, fins, snorkel, etc., it’s a good idea to mark your gear where it’s not visible when you’re wearing it, but is when you’re not – such as putting your initials inside the fin foot pocket.1larking your equipment prevents frustration and confurion when you’re around other scuba divers using similar equipment ment, adjusted to different sizes. This happens a lot on Bali scuba dive boats, and there may be others with similar gear in your confined water Bali scuba dives.

Okay, now you’re about ready to go Bali scuba diving in the pool or confined water. If you’ve never done it before, you’ll find it exhilarating breathing underwater for the first time. You’ll never forget it.

During your first confined water Bali scuba dive, your instructor and the instructor’s assistants will help you set up your gear, put it on and take you through the steps of going underwater with scuba for the first time. Then, you’ll start learning and practicing some of the skills you’ll need as a scuba diver.
 


Your instructor will be at hand the whole time, guiding you and making sure you have fun learning to Bali scuba dive. If you have a question or want some assistance, ask. The PADI Open Water scuba Diver course enables you to meet physical and academic performance requirements through a variety of adaptive techniques. And as it said in the introduction, if you don’t understand why you’re doing something, find out. After all, it doesn’t matter if you can do something perfectly if you don’t know when and why you would do it

Your instructor will go over each of the following scuba skills, and may present them in a slightly different order or manner to accommodate logistics, your individual needs, local conditions and so on. But this will give you an idea of what you’re going to be doing.

 

Give Preview 2

Before you can use scuba equipment, you have to put your tank ,rgulator and BCD together. Your instructor may have your gear already set up for this first confined water Bali scuba dive.

Or may,uide you in putting it together. Between now and when you finish the course, you’ll have put it together and taken apart until it’s second nature.If you bought a brand new BCD, nylon tank band. You do this because new nylon stretches when wet; if you attach the band dry, it may. Loosen when you get in the water. Now:Slide the BCD onto the standing tank from the top.
 


Turn the tank so the valve opening faces toward the BCD,where your head will be. For most BCDs, you want of the hard plate in the jacket (if it has one) or the collar to be about even with the base of the tank valve. Your instructor can help you with this, and you may go higher or lower to suit your preference after using your gear a bit.

Secure the tank band by tightening it as far as you can by hand, then swinging over the locking mechanism. It sould take a bit of strength. Locking mechanisms vary, so e your instructor show you how yours works if it’s not advious (it often isn’t). Some BCDs use two tank bands; tighnten and secure both.

Now check that it’s secure. See if the band slides up and down on the tank. If not, you can lift the tank off theground slightly holding the top of the BCD backpack, and give it a little shake. If the BCD doesn’t shake or slide onthe cylinder, good job. If it moves, you’re too loose. Readjust the band for a tighter fit.

 

Give Preview 3

Attach the regulator. If the regulator’s out of reach, lay the tank and BCD down, with the BCD up, before you go get it.The tank valve opening may be covered by a piece of tape or a plastic cap. If so, remove the tape or cap (discard tape properly – please do not litter).Check the valve opening for an O-ring (yoke system – for DIN, check the regulator first stage connection). It should be clean and free from cuts or nicks. If you need a new O-ring, see your instructor.

Open the tank valve slowly – just for a burst – to blow any accumulated water or dirt from the valve opening. Aim it away from people. If you’re certain there’s no water or debris, you can skip this step.Remove the regulator dust cap by loosening the yoke screw (yoke system) or unscrewing (DIN system).With the tank between your legs and the BCD away from you, put the first stage on the tank valve so that the valve opening meets the first stage opening, and so the second stage hose leads to the right. The primary second stage hose goes over your right shoulder.
 


Tighten the yoke screw until it is just finger tight, or for DIN equipment, gently screw in the regulator until it is snug.
Attach the low pressure hose from the regulator to the BCD low-pressure inflator.at the working pressure on the tank and compare it to theSPG, and you’ll have an idea how full the tank is. You’ll quickly learn the full pressure for most tanks in your areCheck your air with the submersible pressure gauge.

Turn on the air and check its operation. You should now be ready to turn on the air. Hold the SPG in your left hand away from you, facing away, as you turn it on – this is a precaution in the unlikely event the SPG leaks internally and the face bursts; modern SPGs have blow out plugs so this isn’t likely to happen even if it does have a leak. Play it safe anyway

 

Give Preview 4

Next, test the regulator by pressing the urge button Momentarily. The air should flow freely and stop when you release the button. A slight hissing from the second stage may stop if the purge button is pressed or the mouthpiece opening is blocked momentarily. If it does not, notify your instructor. Some very sensitive regulators may begin to free flow (release air continuously) loudly when you press the purge; put your fingers across the mouthpiece and it should stop.

Check the exhaust valve by exhaling into the regulator. Exhalation should be easy. If not, the exhaust valve may be stuck – notify your instructor. If both the purge and exhaust valves function properly, take a few breaths from ,he regulator as a final check. The regulator should breathe easily and smoothly.Sekure hoses and streamline your gear.Dangling SPGs and alternate air sources damage themselves as they drag on the bot tom and the reef. They create drag while you swim and they can destroy and kill sensitive aquatic life.

Your BCD and hoses will have clips, snaps and other attachments so that none of your hoses dangle. Ideally, when swimming underwater nothing hangs below your body line more than about 20 cm/8 inches – and less is better. Typically, you run the SPG hose under your left arm and attach it to the front of your BCD where you can either see it, or easily swing it up and see it. Your alternate air source usually runs under your right arm (though this may vary with the type) and attaches in the triangle formed by your chin and the corners of your rib cages. You’ll use a clip or holder that holds it securely, but releases with a firm tug.

Pressure and Your Body Although you don’t usually notice it, air constantly exerts pressure on you. If youve walked against a strong wind, though, youve felt its force, demonstrating that air can exert pressure.The air pressure that surrounds you now is simply the air’s weight – the result of gravity holding the atmosphere against the earth. You don’t usually feel pressure, though, because your body is primarily liquid which is incompressibte and distributes pressure equally throughout your entire body.

The few air spaces your body does have a vour ears, sinuses aad lungs have air inside them edual in pressure to the external air pressure. Although air is compressible, you don’t notice pressure in body air spaces as long as the pressure’s the same inside and out-side. But if the pressure changes, such as when you ascend to and from a higher altitude by flying or driving through mountains, the air in body air spaces changes volume, and you feel it in your ears. and sometimes in vour sinuses.Just as air exerts pressure on you. so does paten when ynu submerg

But because water m much denser and heavier than air. pressure changes much more signifi cantly for a gk en distance ascent or descent. As with air pressure, you don’t teccl water presure except in your body 3nd one of the first things wull nmice is that ,you’ll feel changes Quickly even when you ascend or descend only a metre These changes have some associated problem that you’ll learn to avoid later in this section and during confined water Bali scuba dives.

 

Pressure and your body 2

Pressure, Volume and Density Relationships At sea level, the surrounding air pressure remains relatively constant. This pressure is a standard reference called one atmosphere (ata) because it is the weight/pressure of (but of course) the atmosphere. It’s also called one bar; there’s a slight technical difference between an ata and a bar, but it’s so minor that for diving applications, we disregard it.”fen metres/33 feet of water (sea water, to be precise) exerts the same pressure as the atmosphere, or one ata/bar.

Therefore, add one ata/bar pressure for every 10 metres/33 feet you descend. At 10 m/33 ft, you’re under two ata/bar one from air and one from water. At 20 m/66 ft, you’re under three ata/bar, and so on.

If you take an air volume underwater with you in a flexible container or an inverted jar, the volume changes proportionately with pressure. If you descend to 10 m/33 ft, you double the pressure (two ata/bar) and halve the volume. At 20 m/66 ft – three ata/bar – uou have one third the volume, and so on Density also changes proportionately when pressure changes. When you double the pressure and halve the air volume, the volume reduction comes from squeezing the same number of air molecules into half the space. So, the density doubles. When you triple the pressure(20 m/66 ft), you triple the density. Hope you’re picking up a pattern here.

Air volume as you descend, you need to add air to the space to keep up with the volume reduction. This is the concept behind equalization (more about this in a moment); the air you need to add is proportional to the pressure increase.As you’ve probably already figured out, air expands pro-portionately as you ascend and the pressure decreases. If you take an air volume to 30 m/99 ft – four ata/bar – it compresses to one fourth its surface volume. When you return to the surface, the air expands to its original volume.

 

Pressure and your body 3

If you added air to the space to maintain its volume, the air you added expands when you reduce the pressure as well. If the air is in an open container, the expanding air simply bubbles out into the surrounding water. In a closed, flexible container like a plastic bag or a balloon inflated at depth, the air volume grows proportionately with the decreasing pressure.

If you inflated the bag at 30 m/99 ft,it will be four times as big atthe surface – provided it can stretch that much? Otherwise, the bag will burst during I Depth Pressure ascent; this has importantimplications regarding your body air spaces that we’ll look at shortly.

Based on what you’ve just learned, we can look at how the relationships between pressure, volume and density affect your body air spaces while Bali scuba diving. The air spaces that concern you as a scuba diver are the natural ones in your bod’y’ and those artificially created by wearing Bali scuba dive equipment. ‘Phe two major air spaces within your body,most noticeably affected by increasing pressure are your ears and sinuses. The major artificial air space most affected by increasing pressure is the one created by your mas

 

Pressure and your body 4

During descent, water pressure increases and compresses the air in your body air spaces. As the volume decreases, the pressure pushes body tissuesin toward the air space, which you feel in your ears.businuses and mask. If you continue to descend, this 1)ecomes uncomfortable, and with continuing descent, posibly even painful. This is called a squeeze on the air space. You may have felt a squeeze in your ears when Bali scuba diving to vhe bottom of a swimming pool. 

A squeeze, then bottom presure imbalance in which pressure outside an air space exceeds pressure inside an air space, result-ing in pain or discomfort. Besides the ears, sinuses and mask, it’s possible to experience a squeeze in the lungs, teeth or any other air space. Fortunately, you can easilyavoid squeezes.

To avoid discomfort, you keep the volume in an air space normal by adding air to it during descent, keeping the air space pressure equal to the water pressure outside. This is called equalization. Your ear and the sinus air spaces connect to the throat, allowing you to use air from your lungs to equalize them. You equalize the air space in your mask through your nose.Although very rare, it’s possible for n air space to develop in filled teeth where the tooth or filling has continued toerode. 

During descent, the increasing pressure pushing in on this small air space causes a tooth squeeze. In most cases, the discomfort will cause you to stop descending. You can’t equalize an air space under a tooth filling, but your dentist can eliminate the space, and reg-ular dental checkups help avoid the problem altogether.

 

Pressure and your body 5

Although an air space, your lungs are large and flexible and not very prone to a squeeze. As a scuba diver, you automatically equalize your lungs as you breathe continuously from your scuba equipment. When you skin Bali scuba dive, holding your breath, the pressure compressing your lungs has no effect, provided you started with a good breath. They drop in volume during descent and re-expand during ascent to nearly their original volume when you reach the surface, havingused an inconsequential amount to equalize other air spaces.
 

If you were to breath hold Bali scuba dive starting with empty lungs (you exhale, then dive) several metres/feet, or descend really deep (like 60 metres/200 feet) holding your breath. there’s a theoretical possibility that you could squeeze your lungs – but these are rather unlikely sit nations for most scuba divers.Another air space you might need to equalize is a dry suit, which holds a layer of air around your body for maximum warmth. If you’re going to use a dry suit as part ol’this course. Your instructor will show you how to equalize it. If you’re not familiar with them, Section Two describes dry suits in more detail.


The air spaces in your ears are the most aensitive to increasing pressure, but assuming you’re in good health (no head cold or allergy congestion! you can easily equalize them. To do this, pinch your nose shut and gently blow against it with your mouth closed; this directs air from your throat into your ears and sinus air spaces. Another technique is swallowing and wigglin the Jaw from side to side. A third technique combines these allow and wiggle your.Jaw while hlowing gently against your pinched nose.

 

Pressure and your body 6

Equalize every metre/few feet while descending, before you feel discomfort. If you wait until you feel discomfort, you may not be able to equalize because water pressure may be great enough to hold the air passages shut. Instead, if you feel discomfort in an air space, ascend until the discomfort eases, equalize and continue a slow descent equalizing more frequently. You’ll find it easier to equalize with experience.

If you can’t equalize, discontinue the Bali scuba dive. Continuing to descend with an unequalized air space may result in a ruptured ear drum or similar injuries. Never attempt a forceful or extended equalization – that can also cause serious ear injuries, including a ruptured ear drum, which can cause vertigo. Should this occur, abort the Bali scuba dive. If ascending a metre/few feet and trying again doesn’t permit you to equalize, don’t force it. Be patient and gentle, or end the Bali scuba dive and try another day.

You can also create an unequalizable space in your ear canal, either by wearing a too-tight wet suit hood that inadvertently seals against your ears, or by wearing ear plugs. In either case, you end up with an air space between your ear drum and the plug/hood that you can’t equalize. To prevent this, pull your hood away from your ears momentarily to allow the pressure to equalize, and nez er wear ear plugs while Bali scuba diving. The only exceptions are special ear protectors made specifically for Bali scuba diving that allow for pressureequalization.

Congestion (due to colds or allergies) can plug air pas-sages, making equalization difficult or impossible. Medications, such as sprays and decongestants, may clear the openings, but you shouldn’t do this and Bali scuba dive because the medication may have undesirable side effects (such as drowsiness) and may wear off while you’re Bali scuba diving, creating equalization problems when you try to ascend

 

Pressure and your body 7

You can also create an unequalizable space in your ear canal, either by wearing a too-tight wet suit hood that inadvertently seals against your ears, or by wearing ear plugs. In either case, you end up with an air space between your ear drum and the plug/hood that you can’t equalize. 

To prevent this, pull your hood away from your ears momentarily to allow the pressure to equalize, and nez er wear ear plugs while Bali scuba diving. The only exceptions are special ear protectors made specifically for Bali scuba diving that allow for pressure equalization.You equalize the air space in your mask by simply exhaling into itthrough your nose. 

If you forget to equalize your mask, you’ll feel a mask squeeze, which is a pulling sensation on your face and eyes. You’ll probably find that mask equalization becomes something you do automatically. Note that since your nose has to be inside If you forget to equalize your mask, you’ll feel a mask squeeze, which is a pulling sensation on your face and eyes. You’ll probably find that mask equalization becomes something you do automatically. Note that since your nose has to be inside the mask to equalize it, you can’t use swimmer goggles for Bali scuba diving – they don’t enclose your nose and cannot be equalized. When you buy a mask, keep these considerations in mind.

Although Bali scuba diving has been around for more than 50 years, it was in the last two decades that the equipment evolved into the effective, reliable and streamlined package you use today. You’re going to find scuba equipment easy to use, reliable and comfortableThe modern scuba unit consists of three basic components the BCD, the scuba tank (with valve) and the regulator. Let’s look at each, beg-inning with the BCD.

As you read earlier. the aptly-named buoy-ancy control device, or BCD, is an expandable bladder that you inflate or deflate to regulate your buoyancy. You can do this orally, using air from vour lungs, though most of the time you’ll use apressure inflator, which inflates the BCD with air directly from your tank. To decrease buo,yancr, You deflate the BCD through a hose or valve.Besides allowing you to re,-ulatevour buoyancy under-water, the BCD provides positive buoyancy for resting, swimming or lending assistance to others. As you might imagine, it’s considered standard equipment mandatoryfor Bali scuba diving.

There are three basic BCD stvles front-mounted, back mounted and jacket-style. Of these, recreational scuba divers by far most commonly use the jacket style. It wears like a sleeveless coat, holding your tank in place as well as providing buoyancy control.It’s unusual to see a front-mounted BCD any more, although this is There are three basic BCD stvles front-mounted, back mounted and jacket-style. Of these, recreational scuba divers by far most commonly use the jacket style. It wears like a sleeveless coat, holding your tank in place as well as providing buoyancy control.It’s unusual to see a front-mounted BCD any more, although this is the original BCD design. It looks somewhat like a life vest, worn over the head, and requires a separate backpack for the tank.

 

Scuba Systems 2

Back-mounted BCDs are also relatively uncommon, though they’re still used in double tank Bali scuba diving. Some modern BCDs fall somewhere between a back-mount and a jacket BCD, with jacket styling and features but most of the BCD bladder behind you like a back-mount. Without arguing semantics, for our purposes we’ll treat them as modern jacket style BCDs suited to recre-ational Bali scuba diving

A related piece of equipment is the backpack, which in the days of front-mounted BCDs you had to have as a separate piece of gear. You need a backpack (again, obviously) to hold the tank on your back, but today the jacket BCD integrates the backpack into its design. As with front-mount BCDs, it’s very unusual to see sepa-rate backpacks today.
 


Features Regardless of the style a BCD has five features necessary for scuba Bali scuba diving First, it must hold enough air to give you and your equipment ample buoyancy at the surface. Second, it must have a large-diameter inflation/deflation hose, so you can release air quickly and easily.

Third, it should have a low-pressure inflation system that fills your BCD with air Overpressure directly from your tank. Fourth, it must have an over pressure relief valve to prevent the BCD from rupturing due to overfilling or due to air expan-sion during ascent. And finally, it should be adjustable enough (within your size) to fit comfortably and not ride up on your body when you inflate it.

 

Scuba Systems 3

Purchase. Virtually every BCD on the market has these features, so besides fit and comfort, you’ll buy your BCD based on other features. Try to choose a BCD that’s as streamlined as possible. Other desirable features include a utility pocket, a whistle for surface communication, hose retainers and utility rings for attaching accessory equipment. Many scuba divers like BCDs that include a weight system, which eliminates a separate weight belt (more about weight systems in Section 2). Your Bali scuba dive center, resort or instructor can help you find an appropriate one.

Materils. Modern BCDs come in either doublebladder (or “bag”) or single-bladder designs. The single-bladder design is usually ma-de from a coated fabric that serves to both hold air and resist cuts, punctures and abrasions. Doublebladder BCDs consist of an inner bladder (usually made of urethane plastic), which holds the air, and an outer nylon shell that protects the inner bladder from cuts, punctures and abrasions. Single bladder types have become the most common.

Prepation For Use. BCDs require adjustment for a proper fit. If it’s too loose, it rotates awkwardly around you, and if it’s too tight, it can restrict breathing, especially when you inflate it. Fortunately, most modern BCDs adjust easily – you can usually tighten or loosen them (to a degree) without taking them off.

With the BCD deflated, estimate the adjustment of the straps, lengthening or shortening them as needed. Next, put it on (have someone help you if necessary) and fine-tune the adjustments until it fits snugly, yet comfortably. Finally, inflate the BCD. Even fully inflated, it shouldn’t feel restrictive. Your instructor will help you adjust your BCD during your confined water Bali scuba dives.

Since scuba divers have a tank and regu-lator, you may wonder why a snorkel is a standard piece of scuba gear. Actually, you want a snorkel for a few reasons when you Bali scuba dive. First, it lets you rest or swim with your face in the water, like when you’re looking for something below, without wasting tank air. 

Second, when there’s a bit of surface chop, splashing waves can get in your mouth if you don’t have a snorkel, but the snorkel is usually high enough to get above these. Third, if you run low on air away from the boat or shore, it makes it easier to swim back, again resting with your face in the water.
 


When you’re skin Bali scuba diving or snorkeling, the snorkel permits you to view the underwater world continu-ously, without the interruption of having to lift your head for a breath. You can stay in the water all day resting with your face in the water, but you tire quickly if you keep having to raise your head to breathe

Try it and see.Maintenancee.Attach the snorkel to the left side of your mask (because your regulator comes from the right). You do this with a clip or slot on the snorkel, or with a snorkel keeper that comes with it. Adjust the snorkel and snorkel keeper so the top of the snorkel sits at the crown of your head with the mouthpiece in place. You should be able to relax your jaw without losing the mouthpiece Maintenancee °As with Try it and see.Maintenancee.Attach the snorkel to the left side of your mask (because your regulator comes from the right). You do this with a clip or slot on the snorkel, or with a snorkel keeper that comes with it. Adjust the snorkel and snorkel keeper so the top of the snorkel sits at the crown of your head with the mouthpiece in place. You should be able to relax your jaw without losing the mouthpiece Maintenancee °As with the mask, rinse after each use and store it in a cool, dry place and kept out of direct sunlight. Store it away from neo prene rubber to prevent staining of silicone parts.

The submersible pressure gauge (SPG – sometimes called the “contents gauge”) tells you how much air you have during a Bali scuba dive, in much the same way that an auto’s fuel gauge tells you how much fuel you have. You’ll learn to use your SPG to plan and control your Bali scuba dive so you return safely to the boat or shore without running out of air. Since you don’t want to run out of air underwater, as you might expect, the SPG is mandatory equipment.

A point to remember is that your SPG is a passive device. You have to read it, or it doesn’t do you any good. Develop the habit of checking your submersible pressure gauge frequently while Bali scuba diving. With practice you’ll get a feel for how fast you use air and won’t need to check quite as much, but for now check it all the time. Better too much than too little.
 


Although SPGs all havethe same purpose, there are a few basic styles and features. These range from gauges that simply tell you your air pressure, to electronic gauges that incorporate other instruments (dive computers). Some of the newest models have no hose, but use a transmitter mounted on the first stage to send air supply data to a computer on your wrist.

Have your PADI Bali Scuba Dive Center, 
Resort or Instructor help you select the best SP(1 when you invest in your regulator. Since it’s mandatory equipment, it makes sense to purchase an SP(s along with the regulator.The only preparation required is to have your Bali scuba dive center or resort attach the SPG (or transmitter, if it’s the hoseleas type) to your regulator.

As you read in the discussion on squeezes, your lungs experience no harmful effects from changes in pressure when you’re holding your breath while skin Bali scuba diving. You take a breath and descend and the increasing water pressure compresses the air in your lungs. During ascent, this air re-expands so when you reach the surface, your When you Bali scuba dive, however, the situation dif-fers dramatically.
 


Scuba equipment allows you to breathe underwater by delivering air at a pres-sure equal to the surrounding water pressure. This means your lungs will be at their normal volume while at depth. This air will expand when you ascend.

If’ you breathe normally, keeping the airway to your lungs open, no problem. Expanding air escapee during ascent and your lungs maintain their normal volume. But, if you were to hold your breath, blocking your airway while ascend-ing. your lungs would overexpand, much like the sealed bag or balloon filled at depth and taken to the surface.Expanding air can cause lung over ex-pansion (lung rupture), the most serious injury that can occur to a scuba diver. 

For this reason, the most important rule in Bali scuba diving is to breathe continuously and never, never hold your breath. Lung over pressurization will occur unless you it the pressure to equalize by hreathin~ normally at all times.force air into the bloodstream and chem cavity, which can lead to severe injuries including paralysis and death.

 

The Effects of Decreasing Pressure 2

Some people find they have a natural tendency to hold tlieir breath when they first begin learning to use scuba, but this tendencyus he changed. The lungs can be injured hy even Although lung overexpansion injuries are very serious and among the most difficult Bali scuba diving injuries to treat, they are also among the easiest to avoid: Simply breathe at all times and do not hold your breath when using scuba. 

During your confined water Bali scuba dives you’ll practice some skills during which you take the scuba regulator out of your mouth, but even then you don’t hold your breath. Instead, you’ll learn to exhale a slow, steady stream of bubbles any time the regu-lator isn’t in your mouth.Your other air spaces generally pose no prob-lems during ascent. Normally, expanding air releases from these without any conscious effort. 

It is possible, though, to feel pain and discomfort in your ear and sinuses while ascending due to a reverse block, sometimes called a “reverse squeeze.” A reverse block occurs when expanding air cannot escape from an air space during ascent. In this case, you feel discomfort because the pressure inside the air space exceeds the surrounding water pressure.

Reverse blocks are uncommon and generally result from Bali scuba diving with congestion cleared by medication, and having the medication wear off while underwater. To avoid this, don’t Bali scuba dive with a cold or allergy congestion, even if you use decongestants or other medication.

 

The Effects of Decreasing Pressure 3

Some people find they have a natural tendency to hold tlieir breath when they first begin learning to use scuba, but this tendencyus he changed. The lungs can be injured hy even Although lung overexpansion injuries are very serious and among the most difficult Bali scuba diving injuries to treat, they are also among the easiest to avoid: Simply breathe at all times and do not hold your breath when usin scuba. 

During your confined water Bali scuba dives you’ll practice some skills during which you take the scuba regulator out of your mouth, but even then you don’t hold your breath. Instead, you’ll learn to exhale a slow, steady stream of bubbles any time the regu-lator isn’t in your mouth.Your other air spaces generally pose no prob-lems during ascent. Normally, expanding air releases from these without any conscious effort. 

It is possible, though, to feel pain and discomfort in your ear and sinuses while ascending due to a reverse block, sometimes called a “reverse squeeze.” A reverse block occurs when expanding air cannot escape from an air space during ascent. In this case, you feel discomfort because the pressure inside the air space exceeds the surrounding water pressure.

Reverse blocks are uncommon and generally result from Bali scuba diving with congestion cleared by medication, and having the medication wear off while underwater. To avoid this, don’t Bali scuba dive with a cold or allergy congestion, even if you use decongestants or other medication.

Tell your friends that you’re learning to Bali scuba dive, and at least one will ask you how long you can stay underwater with a scuba tank. A polite answer is, “Oh, around an hour, give or take,” but as you’ll see, the technically correct answer is, “It depends:” That is, it depends on how deep you Bali scuba dive (as well as your breathing rate).
 


Scuba gear supplies air equal to the sur-rounding pressure. So apply what you learned earlier about pressure and an air volume, and you’ll see that you consume your air faster as you go deeper. For exam-ple, the pressure at 20 metres/66 feet equals three bar/ata, so for each breath you need three times the number of air molecules to fill your lungs to the same volume. Therefore, all other factors equal, your air supply lasts only one third as long at 20 m/66 ft as it does at the surface.

Likewise as you’ve learned, the deeper you descend, the denser the air becomes. Dense air is harder to inhale and exhale than air at normal surface pressure and density, with the effort increasing exponentially the faster you try to breathe it. That is, it takes about four times the effort to breathe twice as fast. So, you want to take deep, slow breaths while breathing dense air while Bali scuba diving. For maximum air conserva-tion, save energy and don’t over exert yourself. Pace yourself so that you breathe normally through your entire Bali scuba dive.

If this is the first time you’ve used scuba to venture the underwater world, you’re going to Immediately, you’ll experience new sensations You venture into a realm where ever things looks sounds and feels a bit different. This is part of what makes Bali scuba diving so special at first you’ll enjoy these sensation because they’re new, but even after you’ve made hundreds of Bali scuba dives, you’ll find them an important part of the Bali scuba diving experience.

The new sensations you have underwater result from physical differences that arise from being underwater. Becoming a scuba diver depends on understanding how these principles affect you. In this section, you’ll begin learning about these by looking at buoyancy and pressure. And, you’ll be learning some extremely impressive words you can use to impress your Friends 

Buoyancy
Have you ever wondered why a large steel ocean liner floats, but a small steel nail sinks? The answer is surprisingly simple The ship’s steel hull forms a shape that displaces – pushes aside – much water.The same amount of steel reshaped into a Have you ever wondered why a large steel ocean liner floats, but a small steel nail sinks? The answer is surprisingly simple The ship’s steel hull forms a shape that displaces – pushes aside – much water.The same amount of steel reshaped into a giant nail would sink, of course, like the regular sized nail. This demonstrates that whether an object floats depends on both its weight and how much water it displaces- its volume.You can state the principle of buoyancy this way An object placed in tuater is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the quantity of water it displaces.

 

The Underwater World 2

This means that if an object displaces an amount of water weighing more than its own weight, it will float. If an object displaces an amount of water weighing less than its own weight, it will sink. If an object displaces an amount of water equal to its own weight, it wrill neither float nor sink, but remain suspended in the water. If an object floats, we call it positively buoyant ifit sinks, we call it negatively buoy ant and if it neither floats nor sinks, we call it neutrally buovant. A buoyancy change that makes some-thing more likely to float is called having “more” buoyancy: a change that makes something more likely to sink icalled having “less” buoyancy.

As a scuba diver. it important to learn to control your buoyancy at the surface and underwater because it Lets you control where you are in the water. For instance, you’ll learn to establish positive buoyancy at the surface so you can save energy and rest. Underwater, you’ll remain neutrally buoyant most of the time – almost weightless, like an astronaut so you can swim effortlessly and move freely in all directions. Staying neutrally buoyant keeps you off the bottom so you avoid injuring delicate aquatic life.

 

The Underwater World 3

You control your buoyancy using two pieces of equipment. These are lead weights and a buoyancy control device (BCD). You will want to purchase these items as soon as possible. You use lead weight in a weight system (such as a weight belt or in a weight integrated BCD) to adjust your weight. The BCD is a device that you inflate (increases your volume) or deflate (reduces your volume) thereby changing your buoyancy at any time during a Bali scuba dive. During the confined water Bali scuba dives, you’ll learn how to start a Bali scuba dive with the right amount of lead weight, and how to adjust your buoyancy as you need to using your BCD.

Since buoyancy results from the weight of water volume displaced, the heavier the water, the greater the buoyancy for a given displacement. Salt water (due to its dissolved salts) weighs more than fresh water, so you’re more buoyant in salt water than in fresh. Without any gear on, most people float in either fresh or salt water. When floating motionless at the surface, most people need to exhale to sink. When you exhale, you decrease the volume of your lungs and the amount of water you displace, which makes you, less buoyant. You’ll discover during the confined water Bali scuba dives that in addition to using lead and your BCD to control your buoyancy, you can fine-tune your buoyancy by breathing more deeply or more shallowly.

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